What are microorganisms, and how do they affect humans?
We also know the microorganisms as the microbes are harmful to human beings. Microbes enter the human body and cause illness. They can cause infectious diseases such as measles and flu. Microbes also causes non-infectious diseases such as heart diseases and cancer. Different microbes lead to various conditions. Pathogens are the name given to the microbes that lead to diseases.
Cold is caused by the microbe known as Rhinovirus. It causes chickenpox because of Varicella zoster. Rubella leads to German measles. Whooping cough occurs because of Bordetella pertussis.
How do microbes enter the body of humans?
Microbes enter the body of human beings through original sites. There are four prime sites from which the bacteria enter humans. They enter through the respiratory tract. The nose and mouth come under the category of the respiratory tract. Through the respiratory tract, mostly the influenza virus enters. Influenza virus causes flu in human beings.
Another way of entry is the gastrointestinal tract. The digestive tract comprises the oral cavity. Vibrio cholera enters through the gastrointestinal tract. Vibrio cholera is not for causing cholera. Through the urinogenital tract, Escherichia coli enters. It causes cystitis. I know clostridium tetany for causing tetanus. It enters by breaking the skin surface.
Mode of action of microbes
To make the person ill, bacteria first reach to the target site of the body. Then they attach themselves to the target site. After attaching themselves, they multiply fast. To live and nourish, they get the nutrients from the host.
When they enter the body of the host, the immune system of the host’s body activates. Microbes make a defence mechanism to avoid the attack of the host’s immune system.
How can bacterial growth monitor?
Bacteria can grow under many conditions. Some bacteria cause health issue when consumed. Bacteria cause food-borne diseases like food poisoning. Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni is one of the common bacteria’s that cause food-borne illness in a human.
The group of researchers from Umea University in Sweden and Zhejiang Normal University in China has found an accurate and fast technique for monitoring bacterial growth. They published the results in the Journal of the Optical Society (OSA).
We associate the growth of microorganisms with the formation of carbon dioxide. By calculating the amount of carbon dioxide present in the bag or bottle, it is easy to check the microbial growth.
Many techniques are available and capable of accurate and fast measurement of the gas composition. Methods based on optical spectrometry are widely used because they give quick responses and are non-invasive. They are useful in checking bacterial growth.
We know the technique as the ‘Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy’ is used. We abbreviate it as TDLAS. The method is beneficial because it is easy to use, and low cost. A group made the instrument based on the TDLAS technique. It will help to assess bacterial growth.
The Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy is the most commonly used absorption technique for the assessment of species in the gaseous phase. We use the technique for the measurement of specific gaseous species such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane.
The primary advantage of the technique is that it can achieve detection at a very low level. Other than measuring the concentration, this technique can also check the properties of the gas is under observation. Features such as mass flux, velocity, pressure, and temperature.
The basic setup of the technique includes a tunable diode laser. We use the diode laser as the source of light. Other parts are beam shaping optics, detectors, a sample that needs to be investigated and receiving optics.
There are species present in the gas. To access their presence, we set the emission wavelength of the laser over the characteristic absorption line. The gas concentration is determined with the help of the reduction of measured signal intensity.
We can combine the wavelength with the modulation technique known as the “wavelength modulation” (WM). Because of this combination, we increase the sensitivity.
We apply this technique to the transparent containers of food items to detect bacterial growth. The wavelength modulation-tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy is a non-invasive technique. It is best for monitoring the quality of food in the containers. It is also used to determine and check under which environmental circumstances the bacterial growth is maximum. One researcher said it could provide real-time analysis.
In microbiology the roles of mutation and selection in evolution are coming to be better understood through the use of bacterial cultures of mutant strains.Edward Tatum
Preventions from the bacterial growth in containers of food
To avoid food to be contaminated, we give the packaged food short shelf life. The better understanding of the metabolism and living conditions of the microorganisms helps to lower food waste. It also helps to save people from food poisoning and other food-borne diseases.